BASE Jumping

Base jumping on Bridge Day in New Creek, West Virginia
••• Base jumping on Bridge Day in New Creek, West Virginia. Photo by Jeff Swensen/Stringer, Getty Images

BASE is an acronym for four types of jumps off fixed objects. - buildings, antennas, spans (such as a bridge) and the Earth (such as the top of a cliff). Base jumpers wear a parachute and sometimes a wingsuit, which is a specially designed outfit that allows them to slow their rate of descent and even make precision maneuvers through the sky. After leaping off a cliff, the jumper's wingsuit rapidly fills with air, so he or she can glide until reaching an altitude where it becomes critical to open a parachute, which then allows them to descend safely back to the ground.

BASE jumping is an extreme sport and there have been many fatal accidents. Readers are encouraged to train with a certified skydiving instructor and spend many hours honing their skills before attempting a BASE jump of their own. While trained professionals make it look easy, there are many subtle nuances and techniques that are only learned over time and many jumps. As the sport has evolved, some skydivers have turned to base jumping to get their visceral rush of adrenaline on a regular basis, creating a great deal of crossover amongst the two extreme sports. 

Examples

Some base jumpers leap off bridges, while others off buildings. Some extreme adventurers don "birdmen" or "flying squirrel" suits then jump off high cliffs or manmade structures. During the first few seconds of free fall the suits fill with air, then the birdman soars at up to 140 miles per hour, sometimes flying close to rock walls and towers (or even through caves) on their descent.

 

History

BASE jumping can trace its origins back to the 1970s when adrenaline seekers were looking for new sports to push their skills to the limit. In 1978, filmmaker Carl Boenish Jr. actually coined the term, when he, his wife Jean, Phil Smith, and Phil Mayfield made the first jump off of El Capitan in Yosemite National Park using ram-air parachutes.

They made an impressive free fall off that massive rock face, essentially creating the sport in the process.

In the early years of BASE jumping, participants in this wild and dangerous new activity mostly employed the same gear the skydivers used when jumping out of airplanes. But over time, the equipment was refined and redesigned to meet the specific needs of jumpers. The parachutes, jumpsuits, helmets, and other gear all evolved became more compact and lighter and turned into something that was better suited for use in a more active sport. Since BASE jumpers often have to carry their equipment with them to the point where they make their jump, these refinements were welcomed. 

In the mid-1990's, French skydiver and BASE jumper Patrick de Gayardon developed what would become the first modern wingsuit. He had hoped to use his designs to add more surface area to his body, allowing him to glide more easily through the air while adding maneuverability to his jumps as well. In the years that followed refinements were made to the initial design by a number of other skydivers, and the wingsuit phenomenon went from concept to a full-fledged product. ​

In 2003, the wingsuit made the leap from skydiving over to BASE jumping, giving rise to a technique known as proximity flying.

In this activity, the BASE jumper still leaps from a structure of some sort but glides back down to Earth while flying close to the ground, trees, buildings, cliffs, or other obstacles. A parachute is still required to make a safe landing, however. 

Today, wingsuit flying is considered an integral part of BASE jumping, with most participants choosing to wear the bat-like suit while making their jumps. This has led to some incredible GoPro video footage of the "pilots" in action as they perform death-defying feats. 

BASE jumping is an incredibly dangerous sport that should only be attempted by those who have been properly trained. It is estimated that an accident is 43 times more likely to occur while taking part in this activity as opposed to simply skydiving from an aircraft. According to Blincmagazine.com – a website dedicated to the sport – more than 256 people have died while BASE jumping since 1981.