The Caribbean archipelago encompasses more than 7,000 individual islands in a region of approximately 1 million square miles. There are 13 sovereign island nations and 12 dependent territories, with close political ties throughout the region to Europe and the United States. Another 10 Latin American countries include coastlines along the Caribbean.
The entire region, often referred to as the West Indies, benefits from a tropical climate with year-round beach-vacation temperatures, making it one of the most coveted destinations in the world.
Caribbean Islands Geography
The Caribbean contains three main island groups: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Lucayan Archipelago, which encompasses the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, and Turks and Caicos, both technically in the Atlantic but with close social and political ties to the Caribbean.
The large islands of Cuba, Hispaniola (host to Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Jamaica, and Puerto Rico all belong to the Greater Antilles, in the northern portion of the Caribbean.
The Lesser Antilles encompasses the southeastern islands and can be further divided into the northern Leeward Islands (including Antigua, Barbuda, and the British and United States Virgin Islands) and the southern Windward Islands (like St. Vincent and Dominica.) The islands along the coasts of Central and South America, though set apart, usually get included with the southern Windwards.
At 42,426 square miles, Cuba ranks first in size and population, but with so many uninhabited islets, reefs, and cays dotting the map, the title for smallest shifts according to the context.
For perspective, a marathoner would need to cross tiny Saba on the island's only paved road two and a half times to reach the requisite mileage. After engineers deemed the volcanic outpost in the Netherlands Antilles too steep and rocky for a road, residents built it by hand.
Caribbean Islands Languages
English remains the dominant colonial language in the Caribbean and the official language of at least 18 islands or island groups in the region including the U.S. Virgin Islands and the Florida Keys.
Spanish is spoken in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, in addition to the continental Caribbean countries of Mexico, and Central and South America. French speakers dominate on the French Islands of Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Barts, and St. Martin, and in Haiti, a former French colony.
Islands in the Netherlands Antilles list Dutch, English, and the creole dialect Papiamentu as official languages, though you're more likely to hear locals speaking English or Papiamentu. Other creole dialects, which combine elements of native, African, and immigrant tongues with the colonial language, flourish throughout the region.
Caribbean Islands Culture
The political history may be colonial, but the culture of the Caribbean is a colorful amalgam of traditions from the many ethnicities found there. The art, music, literature, and culinary achievements reflect the legacy of African slaves forcibly brought there to work on sugar plantations, Amerindians who were living on islands before the arrival of Christopher Columbus, and the Europeans colonizers.