Mexico's independence from Spain is celebrated every year in September. From the beginning of the month, Mexico's streets and buildings are festooned with an explosion of green, white and red, but the main events occur on the 15th and the 16th, when crowds gather in town squares across the nation to shout "Viva México!" Mexican patriotic spirit is embodied in a multitude of popular traditions. This is what you should know about this important national holiday.
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When is Mexican Independence Day?
This holiday is also referred to in Mexico by the date of the event: el Dieciseis de Septiembre (the 16th of September). It is one of Las Fiestas Patrias (the patriotic festivals), and is celebrated on the night of September 15 and all day on September 16. This is one of the most important fiestas of the year in Mexico, and the whole month of September is referred to as el mes de la patria (month of the homeland). Some people outside of Mexico confuse this holiday with Cinco de Mayo, but that is a different celebration.
Read also: Festivals and Events in Mexico in September
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El Grito de Dolores
Mexico's War of Independence officially began on September 15, 1810, when the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang a bell and cried out to the townspeople to take up arms and rise up against the Spanish Crown, an event which is known as el grito de Dolores (the cry of Dolores), named after the town in Guanajuato state where it took place. Within no time the priest had assembled a large and unruly but resolute mob to march with him toward Mexico City, sparking the uprising against Spanish rule.
Learn more about the history of the Cry of Dolores, and where to celebrate "El Grito".
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The Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities. The movement was initiated by criollos (Mexican-born people of Spanish descent), with mestizos and native people joining in the struggle, though each of these groups had different motives and goals. The war lasted over a decade, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba on August 24, 1821, ending three centuries of Spanish rule.
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Mexico's National Symbols
Mexico's flag, the coat of arms, and the national anthem are Mexico's national symbols (los símbolos patrios), and they feature prominently in Independence Day celebrations and decorations. Read more about these national symbols:
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- The Mexican Flag and Coat of Arms
- The Mexican National Anthem
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How to celebrate
The day is celebrated with fireworks, flags, food, and parades. On the night of September 15th the cry of Dolores is re-enacted by local politicians in the public squares of most cities and towns throughout the country. On September 16 there are parades and civic ceremonies commemorating Mexico's independence. September 16 is a national holiday in Mexico: all schools, banks, and government offices are closed. For some fun ideas on how to celebrate, check out 10 Ways to Celebrate Mexican Independence Day.
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Patriotic Mexican Foods
Chiles en Nogada is a Mexican dish which has the colors of the Mexican flag, and they're a favorite food for this holiday. Pozole, a soup made of hominy and pork is also a popular food for Independence Day celebrations. As for drinks, tequila and mezcal fit the bill. For a really festive touch, try a Mexican flag shooter. To learn about some popular foods that are perfect for celebrating Mexico, see 6 Patriotic Mexican Dishes.