Question: Is Queens on Long Island?
Answer: Yes. Queens is on Long Island. The New York City boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn are both on the very aptly named Long Island, on the western side of Long Island.
What? But Queens Isn't Really Long Island
Though Queens is part of Long Island, usually when we say something like "they're from Long Island," we mean they're from Nassau or Suffolk counties on Long Island, not Queens or Brooklyn. "Long Island" has become shorthand for Nassau and Suffolk, even though geographically Long Island includes Nassau, Suffolk, Brooklyn, and Queens. (On a related note, there are About.com Guides to Long Island, Brooklyn, and, of course, Queens.)
Long Island is commonly thought of as suburban, whereas Queens is more urban. But as the largest borough of New York City, Queens is a big area and definitely a blend of urban and suburban neighborhoods. Eastern Queens -- areas like Little Neck and Cambria Heights -- have more in common with their Nassau County kin than with neighborhoods in western Queens such as Long Island City or Jackson Heights. There are even three neighborhoods that are in both Queens and Nassau County: Floral Park, Bellerose, and a sliver of New Hyde Park.