With concerns about tropical diseases on the rise, travelers planning to venture to the many islands that dot the Caribbean Sea often wonder if immunizations are required. In the simple legal sense, no. Immunizations are not required to leave the U.S. and visit this nearby region. However, many varieties of immunization shots are recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the federal agency charged with protecting health and preventing the spread of infectious diseases.
The government-funded public health agency maintains a handy Travel Health website that lists up-to-date information on tropical disease worries across the Caribbean region, organized and customized by country and territory. No matter which destination is listed—from Anguilla to the Virgin Islands—the CDC provides a blanket, common-sense advisory: "You should be up to date on routine vaccinations while traveling to any destination."
This is a sensible good idea for travelers of all stripes, whether you're headed for a weekend or a few weeks or more. Though you should consult a doctor, such vaccines can include measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine; varicella (chickenpox) vaccine; polio vaccine; and the yearly flu shot.
Hepatitis A and Typhoid
A more specialized recommendation for the region is to get vaccinated for hepatitis A and typhoid, as the pathogens can be encountered in contaminated food and water.
Hepatitis B, Rabies, and Yellow Fever
Hepatitis B and rabies can be concerning for some travelers engaged in specific activities such as getting tattoos or exploring caves that are frequented by animals like bats but not to vacationers in general. Of most specific worry is the limited presence of yellow fever in Trinidad and Tobago due to their proximity to South America; disease vectors have been identified in the twin island republic.
Check the CDC page for each separate island or archipelago in your itinerary to make appropriate plans. It's updated throughout the year, and even has a handy check-box tool to identify what type of travel you are planning, from traveling with children or on a cruise ship to studying abroad or visiting family.
Zika and Malaria
There are worries of zika and malaria in the region. However, neither has a vaccine available but both can be potentially avoided by following specific precautions, especially malaria with doctor-prescribed regimens of preventative medicines. The CDC website features extensive information on both of these diseases, too, including maps of where they occur across the Caribbean.
General Ways to Avoid Diseases
In addition, the CDC offers general travel tips for the region to reduce the chance of being infected by pathogens beyond getting vaccinated:
- Eat and drink safe food
- Avoid contact with animals
- Reduce your exposure to germs
- Avoid sharing body fluids
- Avoid non-sterile medical or cosmetic equipment
These guidelines are a good idea for travel in any tropical country.
The website also offers a view for clinicians, with information presented in a handy way for reference for medical professionals. It's an interesting read for lay people, too. To get an idea of what's advisable across the region, you can toggle through destinations like Aruba, Bonaire, Martinique, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.