Amritsar was founded in 1577 by Guru Ram Das, the fourth guru of Sikhs. It’s the spiritual capital of the Sikhs and gained its name, meaning "Holy Tank of Nectar of Immortality", from the body of water surrounding the magnificent Golden Temple.
Plan your trip to Amritsar and the Golden Temple with this essential travel guide.
Getting There and Getting Around
Amritsar's Rajasansi Airport has direct flights from various cities in India including Delhi, Srinagar, Chandigarh, and Mumbai. However, northern India (including Delhi and Amritsar) suffers from fog in winter, so flights can often be delayed during that time. An alternative option is to take the train. There are plenty of services from major Indian cities. From Delhi, the 12013/New Delhi-Amritsar Shatabdi Express will get you there in six hours. It departs from New Delhi Railway Station at 4.30 p.m. and arrives in Amritsar at 10.30 p.m.
You can also travel by road. Regular bus services run from Delhi and other places in north Indian. Travel time from Delhi by bus is around 10 hours. Check Redbus.in for options (if you're a foreigner, you'll need to use Amazon Pay to book because international cards aren't accepted).
Amritsar is divided into old and new parts of the city. The Golden Temple is located in the old part, which is full of bazaars, only 15 minutes from the railway station. The temple's management committee operates frequent free shuttle buses around the clock from the railway station to the temple. However, these buses are known to get awfully crowded during peak times.
Numerous companies offer tours to Amritsar from Delhi. An inexpensive option is the one-night Indian Railways Amritsar Rail Tour Package that includes train travel on the Swarna Shatabdi Express, all meals, accommodations, transport, and sightseeing. The itinerary includes the Golden Temple, Wagah Border, and Jallianwala Bagh. Check the schedule for departure times from New Delhi Railway Station.
When to Go
Amritsar has quite an extreme climate, with very hot summers and very cold winters. The best months to visit are October and November, and February and March. If you don't mind feeling a little chilly, December and January are also good times to visit. The temperature starts to climb in April and the monsoon rain arrives in July.
The Golden Temple
The Golden Temple is the central place of worship for all Sikhs. It also provides a place of worship and shelter for everyone, irrespective of their faith. The temple was designed and built by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan. Its foundations were laid in 1588 by popular Muslim Sufi saint Miyan Mir (in keeping with the notion that people of all faiths are welcome) and construction was completed in 1604.
The temple complex was further developed by Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh guru, who added the Akal Takht in 1606. This throne of spiritual authority is one of five seats of power for Sikhs. Unfortunately, the original temple sustained extensive damage during fighting between Sikhs and Muslims. In 1762, Afghan invaders led by Ahmed Shah Abdali blew up the temple, but fortunately, it was quickly rebuilt.
The temple—so exquisite, it was formally known as Sri Harmandir Sahib, "The Abode of God,"—is what makes this otherwise normal Punjabi city special. The sacred Sikh shrine attracts pilgrims from all over the world who pay their respects and do voluntary service in numbers that rival the yearly visitors to the Taj Mahal in Agra.
The temple looks particularly arresting at night when its imposing pure gold dome is illuminated. However, the temple didn't get its glorious golden glow until more than 200 years after it was originally constructed. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the leader of the 19th century Sikh Empire, sponsored the gold plating and other marble work in 1830.
In addition to the dome, one of the temple's most incredible features is the langar, or free food from the community kitchen, that it provides to pilgrims or anyone else in need. The temple is said to have the largest free community kitchen in the world and feeds up to 100,000 people per day. It's possible to take a tour of the kitchen—an opportunity you should not miss—and even volunteer there.
The temple complex opening times vary by time of year. If you have time, it's well worth two visits—one during the day and one at night. Special rituals are performed at dawn, when the Guru Granth Sahib (the Sikh holy book) is taken out, and upon closing when it's returned to bed. The scripture is treated as a living person, or guru, out of respect. Visitors note: Heads must be covered and shoes removed when you enter the temple complex.
Other Things to Do in Amritsar
Amritsar's Old City is really worth exploring. This Heritage Walking Tour of Amritsar will guide you through its narrow lanes. On the walk, you'll get to see historic mansions, traditional trades and crafts, and captivating architecture with intricately carved wooden facades. Jagaadus Hostel also organizes interesting and reasonably priced tours in and around Amritsar. Choose from a tour of the Golden Temple, a food walk, a village tour, and tour to the Wagah Border.
Amritsar is known for its hearty street food. There are various options for guided walking tours including this Amritsari Food Trail offered by Amritsar Magic, Amritsar Food Trail offered by Amritsar Food Tour and Amritsar Food Walk offered by Amritsar Heritage Walk. If you want to try the local cuisine without taking a tour, century-old Kesar Da Dhaba is iconic. It's located in the Old City, near the Golden Temple. You'll need to take a cycle rickshaw there or walk, as it's tucked away in a narrow lane. Do note that it only serves vegetarian food. If you're a hardcore meat eater, head to Makan Fish and Chicken Corner or Beera Chicken (known for its roast chicken).
Jallianwala Bagh is an important historical site in India, as the location of a defining event in India's struggle for independence. In 1919, more than 10,000 unarmed protestors were massacred there by the British in an act that propelled Gandhi's independence movement.
Amritsar also has a new Partition Museum dedicated to recording and preserving the experiences of those affected by the 1947 Partition of India, which was enacted as part of the deal to grant India independence. It's one of the top museums in India and showcases an important event in India's history that has had wide-ranging effects of world politics.
Gobindgarh Fort, on Old Cantt. Road in Amritsar, is worth visiting as well. This fort was the heart of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's empire. It housed an armory and mint, and has almost 300 years of fascinating history. The government opened the restored fort to the public in 2017. It has been developed into a cultural center with a museum dedicated to Punjab’s history.
Festivals and Events
Most of the festivals that take place in Amritsar are religious in nature. Diwali, Holi, Lohri (bonfire harvest festival), and Baisakhi (Punjab new year and commemoration of the founding of the Sikh religion brotherhood in April) are all celebrated there on a grand scale. Baisakhi is particularly boisterous, with lots of bhangra dancing, folk music, and fairs. Major celebrations are organized at the Golden Temple on this occasion, and it becomes carnival like outside. There's also a street procession. Other festivals in Amritsar include Guru Nanak Jayanti in November, and the Ram Tirath Fair, also in November a fortnight after Diwali.
Where to Stay
Some reasonably priced budget options are Hotel City Park, Hotel City Heart, Hotel Darbar View, and Hotel Le Golden. These are best for those who prefer to stay close to the Golden Temple, but this area won't suit everyone because the streets are congested. The contemporary new Taj Swarna Amritsar is the best luxury hotel in the city. Golden Tulip Amritsar is a decent mid-range option close to the railway station.
For a characterful heritage hotel, head to the WelcomHeritage Ranjit's Svaasa. This boutique Ayurvedic spa retreat is housed in a 200 year old mansion, just off Mall Road (around 10 minutes drive from the Golden Temple). Expect to pay 6,000 rupees upwards for a double. Alternatively, Amritsar has some fabulous boutique properties on the outskirts of the city, such as the Farmer's Villa farmstay and Windsong BnB.
If you'd prefer to stay in a guesthouse, Mrs. Bhandari's Guesthouse receives good reviews. It's situated in a peaceful area surrounded by a garden and has a swimming pool. Double rooms are available from 2,600 rupees per night. Jagaadus Hostel is the most popular backpacker hostel in Amritsar.
What to Do Nearby
Most tourists who visit Amritsar also take a day trip to the Wagah Border between India and Pakistan, which is around 28 kilometers (17 miles) from the city. The big attraction there is the flag lowering ceremony, which takes place at the checkpoint every evening at sundown. It has been going on since 1959 with great fanfare. You can get there by taxi (about 1,000 rupees return), auto rickshaw, shared jeep (150 rupees per person), or on one of the many tours.